1. Advertising: Advertising for NZcycle would be done through other related apps and done through Tourism New Zealand, at i-Sites’ etc.
2. Arrangement Fee: A fee paid to a mandated bank or group of banks (lead arrangers) for arranging a transaction. It includes fees to be paid to participating banks. E.g. a fee on a loan for NZcycle financing
3. Asset: The physical project (NZcycle) and its associated contracts, rights, and interests of every kind, in the present or future, which can be valued or used to repay debt.
4. Available Cash Flow: Total cash sources less total cash uses before payment of debt service e.g. revenue from people purchasing the app less the costs of development.
5. Bankable: NZcycle is Capable of being financed
6. Beta (B, systematic risk, nondiversifiable risk): Risk that cannot be diversified away. Risks that will be encountered when developing NZcycle that cannot be avoided.
7. Bond: The paper evidence of a legal promise by the issuer to pay the investor on the declared terms.
8. Buffer: Interim storage where work-in-process can be stored between steps in a process. For example; while NZcycle is being developed before it is launched.
9. Contribution Margin: Certain percentage of the price consumers pay for the app that will go towards fixed costs.
10. Expected return: Average possible returns from the sale of the app weighted the probability.
11. Financing: How a company chooses to pay for its on-going operations and/or expansion. For NZcycle it will probably mostly be venture capital but possibly some loan as well.
12. Forecasting: To predict or project a future outcome e.g. future development of the app
13. Internal Funding: Cash retained in the business after dividends and other financial cash flows (e.g., repayment of debt) are deducted from operating cash flows. This money will then be used to further develop the app.
14. Liquidity: The ability of a firm to meet its obligations in a timely manner e.g. app release deadline etc.
15. Net Sales: Total sales revenue less certain offsetting items such as returns and allowances and sales discounts.
16. Operation, Operating System, (also Process): Any part of an organization that takes inputs and transforms them into outputs of greater value to the organization than the original inputs. e.g. developers skills into the NZcycle app
17. Product Tolerance: How the product must be made to be usable later in a process or by a customer.
18. Profitability: The ability of a company to provide investors with a particular rate of return on their investment. Most investors in NZcycle will be the owner/developers, this also includes being able to repay loans to the bank etc.
19. Profit margin: The proportion of each sales dollar that filters down to income, defined as income divided by net sales. The percentage of the sale price that is left over after all debts and costs have been paid.
20. Retention Rate: When used in the context of customers, the percentage of customers that remain customers after a number of experiences with a product or company. Usually linked to customer satisfaction. A high customer retention rate would lead to a high lifetime value from those customers. It is the hope that many users will remain customers after using NZcycle.
21. Set up costs: The costs associated with preparing to manufacture a specific product. The set-up costs for NZcycle will probably be relatively high, including equipment costs (computers etc.) and developers
22. Unit sales: The number of app downloads sold by a NZcycle.
23. Valuation: The process of assigning value to a company of project. e.g. how much NZcycle will be worth as a company.
24. Break-Even Point: The point at which sales equal total costs. Sales from NZcycle will be enough to cover debts and costs.
25. Entrepreneur: Someone who is willing to assume the responsibility, risk and rewards of starting and operating a business like NZcycle.
26. Venture Capital: Money used to support new or unusual undertakings; equity, risk or speculative investment capital. This funding is provided to new or existing firms which exhibit potential for above-average growth like NZcycle which is in a developing market in New Zealand. This will be where most of NZcycle’s funding will come from.
27. Affiliate: In web marketing an affiliate normally receives a commission for promoting another company’s products or services. This will be a way that NZcycle will be advertised.
28. Allocentric: a term, coined in 1977 by Plog, which refers to those tourists who are adventurous, outward-looking and like to take risks; the type of tourists who would be most interested in using NZcycle.
29. Brand: the name, symbol or design, or combination of these, that is used to identify the products or services of a producer to differentiate them from competitors’ products or services e.g. “NZcycle”
30. Catchment area: the geographical area from which the overwhelming majority of an organization’s or product’s customers
are drawn. Geographically, NZcycle’s customers will not only be domestic but world wide.
31. Competition: the process by which two or more organizations endeavour to gain customers at the expense of the other organization or organizations. Currently there are no other apps that are extremely similar to NZcycle.
32. Concentrated marketing: the focusing of the marketing effort on just one or two of the available market segments. NZcycle will focus on the adventure tourists; specifically those who are into mountain biking.
33. Consumer: the person who actually uses or consumes a product or service. e.g the tourist/mountain biker.
34. Customer: the person who actively purchases the product or service, and pays the bill. The term is often used interchangeably with ‘consumer’ but they are different. For example, in business tourism, a company is the customer as it pays for the travel services, but it is the employee or business traveller who actively travels, and is therefore the consumer. In the case of NZcycle the customer is also the consumer.
35. Direct marketing: selling directly from the producer to the customer without the use of intermediaries such as travel agents. Travel agents and other intermediaries will not be used to sell NZcycle.
36. Domestic tourism: tourism where the residents of a country take holidays as business trips wholly within their own country. Domestic tourists will be some of the consumers of the app.
37. Eco-tourist: someone who is motivated by a desire to take a vacation that allows him or her to see the natural history of a destination and meet the indigenous population. NZcycle promotes eco-tourism in New Zealand, showing the natural scenery of New Zealand in many different places.
38. Ethics: the moral values and standards that guide the behaviour of individuals and organizations. Ethics are important for any company including NZcycle.
39. Growth market: a market where demand is growing significantly e.g. the mountain biking/cycling sector in New Zealand.
40. Market: those consumers who currently are, or potentially may become, purchasers and/or users of NZcycle.
41. Market leader: the product which has the largest share of a single market, in other words, it is purchased by more people than any of its competitor products. This is what NZcycle would like to achieve eventually.
42. Market share: the proportion of sales of a particular type of product achieved by an individual product. NZcycle would like to gaini the largest market share in the cycling app market.
43. Seasonality: the distribution over time of total demand for a product or destination, usually expressed in terms of peak and off-peak seasons to distinguish between those times when demand is higher than average and vice versa. NZcycle will most likely be popular during the summer months in New Zealand.
44. Segmentation: the technique of dividing total markets into subgroups whose members share similar characteristics as consumers. The consumers of NZcycle will all have similar characteristics being adventure tourists etc.
45. Target marketing: marketing activity aimed at a particular group of consumers within the overall total population. This target market will mostly be domestic tourists but will include international tourists who all have an interest in cycling/mountain biking in New Zealand.
46. Virtual reality: a set of technologies which replicate real-world experiences and can be developed as a leisure product. This is basically what NZcycle is; showing the cycling tracks around New Zealand in a virtual reality.
47. Word of mouth: the process whereby consumers who have experienced a product or service pass on their views, both positive and negative, about the product or service to other people. NZcycle will rely on word of mouth advertising a lot with it’s consumers.
48. Economic analysis: Tourism generates directly and indirectly an increase in economic activity in the places visited (and beyond), mainly due to demand for goods and services that need to be produced and provided. NZcycle will generate economic activity for small towns and businesses that want to advertise in the app.
49. Tourism expenditure: Tourism expenditure refers to the amount paid for the acquisition of consumption goods and services, as well as valuables, for own use or to give away, for and during tourism trips.
50. Tourism sector: The tourism sector, as contemplated in the TSA, is the cluster of production units in different industries that provide consumption goods and services demanded by visitors. NZcycle lies in the tourism cycling industry which is an emerging market in New Zealand.